Major Depression or Unipolar depression
Depressive disorders are often recurrent familial illnesses associated with increased psychosocial morbidity and mortality. Early identification and effective treatment may reduce the impact of depression on the family, social, and academic functioning in youths and may reduce the risk of suicide, substance abuse, and persistence of depressive disorders into adulthood. Evidence-supported treatment interventions guide clinicians to improve outcomes.
Approximately 5% to 10% of children and adolescents have subsyndromal symptoms of MDD. These youths have a considerable psychosocial impairment, high family loading for depression, and an increased risk of suicide and developing MDD.
Disruptive Mood deregulation disorder
Children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) have severe and frequent temper tantrums that interfere with their ability to function at home, in school, or with their friends. Some of these children were previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder, even though they often did not have all the signs and symptoms. Research has also demonstrated that children with DMDD usually do not go on to have bipolar disorder in adulthood. They are more likely to develop problems with depression or anxiety.
Many children are irritable, upset, or moody from time to time. Occasional temper tantrums are also a normal part of growing up. However, when children are usually irritable or angry or when temper tantrums are frequent, intense, and ongoing, it may be signs of a mood disorder such as DMDD.